An Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Different Advertising Formats on Children’s Attitudes’ Towards Sports Brands

Ranya Ibrahim Yousif, Alaa Tarek, Wael Kortam

Abstract


The study aims to investigate children’s attitude towards different advertising formats including TV ads, in-movie product placement and in-game advertisements, using a web-based between subjects’ experimental design among a sample of Egyptian children aged between 6 to 13 years. Children’s attitude development by advertising efforts is considered under investigated in literature particularly in Arab cultures and as they are considered as powerful influencers to parents’ purchase decisions, the study contributes to a better understanding of children’s attitudes that will guide mangers in making wiser advertising budget allocation. The results showed that there is a significant different impact of the investigated advertising formats on children’s attitude towards sports brands with higher cognitive, affective and behavioral responses resulted from the exposure to traditional video advertising compared to in-movie product placement and in-game advertisements.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54663/2182-9306.2021.v9n17.48-71


Keywords


Advertising, Children Attitudes, Product Placement, Sports’ Brands

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bamfo, B. A., Kraa, J. J., Asabere, P., & Atarah, B. A. (2019). Effect of television adverts on children’s purchase behavior: Evidence from Ghana. Cogent Business & Management, 6(1), 1614740.

Belch, G. E., & Belch, M. A. (2017). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective 6th. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill.

Blades, M., Oates, C., Blumberg, F., & Gunter, B. (Eds.). (2014). Advertising to children: New directions, new media. Springer.

Catalán, S., Martínez, E., & Wallace, E. (2019). Analyzing mobile advergaming effectiveness: the role of flow, game repetition and brand familiarity. Journal of Product & Brand Management.

Chaney, I., Hosany, S., Wu, M. S. S., Chen, C. H. S., & Nguyen, B. (2018). Size does matter: Effects of in-game advertising stimuli on brand recall and brand recognition. Computers in Human Behavior, 86, 311-318.‏

Charness, G., Gneezy, U., & Kuhn, M. A. (2012). Experimental methods: Between-subject and within-subject design. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 81(1), 1-8.

Cohen, J. (1988), Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Academic Press, New York, 2nd edn.

De Jans, S., Van de Sompel, D., Hudders, L., & Cauberghe, V. (2019). Advertising targeting young children: an overview of 10 years of research (2006–2016). International Journal of Advertising, 38(2), 173-206.

De Pauw, P., De Wolf, R., Hudders, L., &Cauberghe, V. (2018). From persuasive messages to tactics: Exploring children’s knowledge and judgement of new advertising formats. New Media & Society, 20(7), 2604-2628.‏

De Pauw, P., Hudders, L., &Cauberghe, V. (2018). Disclosing brand placement to young children. International Journal of Advertising, 37(4), 508-525.

Eagle, L., & Dahl, S. (2018). Product placement in old and new media: examining the evidence for concern. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(3), 605-618.

Eshghi, A., Sarkar, J.G., Sarkar, A. (2017). Impact of online advertising on adolescent’s brand attitudes, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(6), 706-723.

Gibson, B., Redker, C., & Zimmerman, I. (2014). Conscious and nonconscious effects of product placement: Brand recall and active persuasion knowledge affect brand attitudes and brand self-identification differently. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3(1),

Hall, L., Hume, C., & Tazzyman, S. (2016, June). Five degrees of happiness: Effective smiley face likert scales for evaluating with children. In Proceedings of the The 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 311-321).

Hudders, L., &Cauberghe, V. (2018). The mediating role of advertising literacy and the moderating influence of parental mediation on how children of different ages react to brand placements. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 17(2), 197-210.

Hudders, L., Cauberghe, V., Panic, K., & De Vos, W. (2016). Children’s Advertising Literacy for New Advertising Formats: The Mediating Impact of Advertising Literacy on the (Un) Intended Effects of Advergames and Advertising Funded Programs. In Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. VI), 241-252, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Judd, C.M.,McClelland, G. H., & Smith, E. R. (1996). Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects. Psychological Methods, 1, 366–378.

Lenth, R. V. (2001). Some practical guidelines for effective sample size determination. The American Statistician, 55(3), 187-193.

Malhotra, N., & Birks, D. (2017). Marketing Research: an applied approach: 3rd European Edition. Pearson education.

Palan, S., & Schitter, C. (2018). Prolific. ac—A subject pool for online experiments. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 17, 22-27.

Rauwers, F., Remmelswaal, P., Fransen, M. L., Dahlén, M., & van Noort, G. (2018). The impact of creative media advertising on consumer responses: two field experiments. International Journal of Advertising, 37(5), 749-768.‏

Reips, U. D. (2009, February). Internet experiments: Methods, guidelines, metadata. In Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XIV (Vol. 7240, p. 724008). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Reynolds, L., & Johnson, R. (2011). Is a picture is worth a thousand words? Creating effective questionnaires with pictures. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 16(1), 8.

Staiano, A. E., & Calvert, S. L. (2014). The Influence of Advergames on Children’ Consumer Choices and Behavior. In Advertising to Children (pp. 218-238). Palgrave Macmillan, London

Smink, A. R., van Reijmersdal, E. A., &Boerman, S. C. (2017). Effects of brand placement disclosures: An eye tracking study into the effects of disclosures and the moderating role of brand familiarity. In Advances in Advertising Research VIII (pp. 85-96). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Van Reijmersdal, E. A., Jansz, J., Peters, O., & Van Noort, G. (2010). The effects of interactive brand placements in online games on children’s cognitive, affective, and conative brand responses. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1787-1794.

Vanwesenbeeck, I., Opree, S. J., & Smits, T. (2017). Can Disclosures Aid Children’s Recognition of TV and Website Advertising?. In Advances in Advertising Research VIII (pp. 45-57). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Vashisht, D., Royne, M. B., & Sreejesh, S. (2019). What we know and need to know about the gamification of advertising. European Journal of Marketing.

Verhellen, Y., Oates, C., De Pelsmacker, P., & Dens, N. (2014). Children’s responses to traditional versus hybrid advertising formats: The moderating role of persuasion knowledge. Journal of Consumer Policy, 37(2), 235-255.

Waiguny, M., &Terlutter, R. (2010). Entertainment in Advergames and its Influence on Brand-Related Outcomes for Children. In Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. 1) (pp. 171-186).

Webster, M., & Sell, J. (Eds.). (2014). Laboratory experiments in the social sciences. Elsevier

Williams J.M. (2015). Advergames as a developmental challenge to children’s processing of persuasive messages, Ph.D. Dissertation (Accessed from ProQuest Database), Fordham University, New York, USA.

Yahaya, W. A. J. W., & Salam, S. (2008). Smiley faces: Scales measurement for children assessment. In Conf. 2nd International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention, Malaysia (pp. 1-8).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media

ISSN: 2182-9306

 

Indexing:

Web of Science - Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) Clarivate Analytics

Crossref

QUALIS CAPESGOOGLE SCHOLAR - LATINDEX - REDIB - RCAAP - OAJI - DRJI - MIAR - LIVRE - ERIH PLUS - INDEX COPERNICUS -