YouTube Marketing: Examining the impact of user-generated-content sponsorship.

ÖZGE GÖZEGİR, AYSU GÖÇER

Abstract


Social media has been recognized as an important marketing tool for affecting consumer behaviour, which motivated companies to search for opportunities to advertise their brands through social media. In that regard, they critically assess sponsoring user-generated-content (UGC) creators in social media to feature their products. However, the effectiveness of this approach on consumers’ decisions is still unclear, and the literature is scarce. This study assesses the impact of explicit sponsorship of social media UGC creators on consumers’ behaviour. The purpose is to examine the factors affecting viewer’s willingness to purchase a product through a social media channel, and understand whether a sponsored video changes the viewers’ opinion. The effects of UGC social media videos on consumers is investigated through a within-design experimental study. Multiple measurements are made on the same set of respondents, chosen among 241 females, for two YouTube videos, one self-produced and the other associated with a brand. Data is assessed by employing four analyses; mean comparison, moderation, multi-group moderation and moderated mediation. The study indicates that sponsorship of UGC creators on YouTube is an effective way of advertising brands, and strengthens the respondents’ purchase intention. Results showed that sponsorship increases the source’s perceived expertise. Although sponsorship decreases the endorser’s trustworthiness, the impact of a specific brand positively effects consumers’ willingness to buy, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intention. Marketers should be aware of the success revealed by the impact of YouTube. This study provides an important insight for marketers seeking ways to integrate their brand marketing strategies to new media technologies, and are interested in giving advertisement on UGC creators on social media channels. The approach of using well-known YouTubers for sponsorship is a new marketing strategy that companies need to be aware of. This study focuses on the importance of new media technologies for brand advertisements. This study is the one of the first to investigate the sponsorship effect in UGC on YouTube, and contributes also to the practice by investigating advertisement opportunities with UGC creators on YouTube.


Keywords


YouTube(r), User-Generated Content (Creator), Sponsorship, Experimental Design, Source Credibility

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amos, C., Holmes, G., & Strutton, D. (2008). Exploring the Relationship Between Celebrity Endorser Effects and Advertising Effectiveness. International Journal of Advertising, 27(2), 209-234.

Bambauer-Sachse, S., & Mangold, S. (2013). Do Consumers Still Believe What is Said in Online Product Reviews? A Persuasion Knowledge Approach. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(4), 373-381.

Baumgartner, H., & Steenkamp, J. E. (1996). Exploratory Consumer Buying Behavior: Conceptualization and Measurement. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(2), 121-137.

Brown, J., Broderick, A. J., & Lee, N. (2007). Word of Mouth Communication Within Online Communities: Conceptualizing the Online Social Network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 2-20.

Brown, T. J., Barry, T. E., Dacin, P. A., & Gunst, R. F. (2005). Spreading the Word: Investigating Antecedents of Consumers' Positive Word-of-Mouth Intentions and Behaviors in a Retailing Context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 123-138.

Cameron, G. T. (1994). Does Publicity Outperform Advertising? An Experimental Test of the Third-Party Endorsement. Journal of Public Relations Research, 6(3), 185-207.

Cheong, H. J., & Morrison, M. A. (2008). Consumers’ Reliance on Product Information and Recommendations Found in UGC. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8(2), 38-49.

Cheung, C. M., & Thadani, D. R. (2012). The Impact of Electronic Word of Mouth Communication: A Literature Analysis and Integrative Model. Decision Support Systems, 54(1), 461-470.

Constantinides, E. (2014). Foundations of Social Media Marketing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 40-57.

Dehghani, M., Niaki, M. K., Ramezani, I., & Sali, R. (2016). Evaluating the Influence of YouTube Advertising for Attraction of Young Customers. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 165-172.

Dholakia, R. R., & Sternthal, B. (1977). Highly Credible Sources: Persuasive Facilitators or Persuasive Liabilities? Journal of Consumer Research, 3(4), 223-232.

Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers' Product Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.

Dou, X., Walden, J. A., Lee, S., & Lee, J. Y. (2012). Does Source Matter? Examining Source Effects in Online Product Reviews. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1555-1563.

Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Chaiken, S. (1978). Causal Inferences About Communicators and Their Effect on Opinion Change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(4), 424-435.

Erdogan, B. Z. (1999). Celebrity Endorsement: A Literature Review. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(4), 291-314.

Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: SAGE.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Folkes, V. S. (1988). Recent Attribution Research in Consumer Behavior: A Review and New Directions. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(4), 548-565.

Gotlieb, J. B., & Sarel, D. (1991). Comparative Advertising Effectiveness: The Role of Involvement and Source Credibility. Journal of Advertising, 20(1), 38-45.

Hautz, J., Füller, J., Hutter, K., & Thürridl, C. (2014). Let Users Generate Your Video Ads? The Impact of Video Source and Quality on Consumers' Perceptions and Intended Behaviors. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(1), 1-15.

Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion; psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jonas, J. R. (2010). Source Credibility of Company-Produced and User-Generated Content on the Internet: An Exploratory Study on the Filipino Youth. Philippine Management Review, 17, 121-132.

Joseph, W. B. (1982). The Credibility of Physically Attractive Communicators: A Review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15-24.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.

Kelley, H. H. (1973). The Processes of Causal Attribution. American Psychologist, 28(2), 107-128.

Klitzner, M., Gruenewald, P. J., & Bamberger, E. (1991). Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking. Addiction, 86(3), 287-298.

Lee, F. L. (2012). News fromYouTube: professional incorporation in Hong Kong newspaper coverage of online videos. Asian Journal of Communication, 22(1), 1-18.

Lu, L., Chang, W., & Chang, H. (2014). Consumer attitudes toward blogger’s sponsored recommendations and purchase intention: The effect of sponsorship type, product type, and brand awareness. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 258-266.

MacKinnon, K. A. (2012). User Generated Content vs. Advertising: Do Consumers Trust the Word of Others Over Advertisers? The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3(1), 14-22.

Mangold, W. G., & Faulds, D. J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business Horizons, 52(4), 357-365.

Mikalef, P., Giannakos, M., & Pateli, A. (2013). Shopping and Word-of-Mouth Intentions on Social Media. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 8(1), 17-34.

Miller, G. R., & Baseheart, J. (1969). Source Trustworthiness, Opinionated Statements, and Response to Persuasive Communication. Speech Monographs, 36(1), 1-7.

Mir, I. A., & Rehman, K. U. (2013). Factors Affecting Consumer Attitudes and Antentions Toward User-Generated Product Content on Youtube. Management & Marketing Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 8(4), 637-654.

Mir, I., & Zaheer, A. (2012). Verification of Social Impact Theory Claims in Social Media Context. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 17(1), 1-15.

Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.

Raju, P. S. (1980). Optimum Stimulation Level: Its Relationship to Personality, Demographics, and Exploratory Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 7(3), 272-282.

Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A. & King, J. (2006) Reporting Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review, The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 323-337.

Seltman, H. J. (2015). Experimental Design and Analysis. Found online at http://www.stat.cmu.edu/~hseltman/309/Book/chapter14.pdf

Settle, R. B., & Golden, L. L. (1974). Attribution Theory and Advertiser Credibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 11(2), 181-185.

Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why We Buy What We Buy: A Theory of Consumption Values. Journal of Business Research, 22(2), 159-170.

Sohail, M. S. & Al-Jabri, I. (2017) Evolving factors influencing consumers' attitudes toward social media marketing and their impact on social media usage. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media. Special Number 2 – Marketing and Digital Business, 3-25, Available at http://u3isjournal.isvouga.pt/index.php/ijmcnm.

Steenkamp, J. E., & Baumgartner, H. (1992). The Role of Optimum Stimulation Level in Exploratory Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 434-448.

Sutherland, M., & Friedman, L. (2000). Do You Model Ad Awareness or Advertising Awareness? Journal of Advertising Research, 32-36.

Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Consumer Perceived Value: The Development of a Multiple Item Scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203-220.

Wu, K. (2016). YouTube Marketing: Legality of Sponsorship and Endorsement in Advertising

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media

ISSN: 2182-9306

 

International Networks of Indexing:

Emerging Sources Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics) - QUALIS CAPESGOOGLE SCHOLAR - LATINDEX - REDIB - RCAAP - OAJI - DRJI - MIAR - LIVRE - ERIH PLUS.