Shallow Engagement in Highly Engaged Pages. The Influence of Perceived Value, Content Reliability, and Homophily on Disseminating Information on Valencia Bonita Facebook Community Page

Tomás Baviera, Sergio Rodríguez Rodríguez


The purpose of this paper is to study the engagement that leads to disseminating content on a highly engaged Facebook page. The model connects shallow engagement, understood as clicking like and sharing content, with four antecedents: image attractiveness, perceived value, reliable content, and perceived homophily. The research is based on a survey of 257 users from Valencia Bonita, a user-generated Facebook page which posts information about the Spanish city of Valencia regarding its history and possible leisure plans. The analysis is performed using structural equation modelling. The evaluation of the model confirms the direct effect on shallow engagement of three antecedents: perceived value, reliable content, and perceived homophily. Image attractiveness has an indirect effect through perceived value.




Engagement; Facebook; Elaboration Likelihood Model

Full Text:



Alhidari, A., Iyer, P., & Paswan, A. (2015). Personal level antecedents of eWOM and purchase intention, on social networking sites. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 14(2), 107–125.

Alwash, M., Savarimuthu, B. T. R., & Parackal, M. (2021). Mining brand value propositions on Twitter: exploring the link between marketer-generated content and eWOM outcomes. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 11(1), 83.

Anderson, J, C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

Antoniadis, I., Paltsoglou, S., & Patoulidis, V. (2019). Post popularity and reactions in retail brand pages on Facebook. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 47(9), 957–973.

Babić Rosario, A., de Valck, K., & Sotgiu, F. (2020). Conceptualizing the electronic word-of-mouth process: What we know and need to know about eWOM creation, exposure, and evaluation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48(3), 422–448.

Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644–656.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210–230.

Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105–114.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230–258.

Carlson, J., Rahman, M., Voola, R., & De Vries, N. (2018). Customer engagement behaviours in social media: Capturing innovation opportunities. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(1), 83–94.

Chan, T. K. H., Zheng, X., Cheung, C. M. K., Lee, M. K. O., & Lee, Z. W. Y. (2014). Antecedents and consequences of customer engagement in online brand communities. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 2(2), 81–97.

Chandon, P., Wansink, B., & Laurent, G. (2000). A Benefit Congruency Framework of Sales Promotion Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 64(4), 65–81.

Chang, Y. T., Yu, H., & Lu, H. P. (2015). Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 777–782.

Chen, K.-J., Kim, J., & Lin, J.-S. (2015). The effects of affective and cognitive elaborations from Facebook posts on consumer attitude formation. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 14(3), 208–218.

Chu, S.-C., & Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 47–75.

de Vries, L., Gensler, S., & Leeflang, P. S. H. (2012). Popularity of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages: An Investigation of the Effects of Social Media Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26, 83–91.

Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., Beverland, M., Vanhamme, J., & van Wijk, R. (2007). Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally. Business Horizons, 50, 291–304.

Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Frethey-Bentham, C., Fahy, J., & Goodman, S. (2019). Social media engagement behavior: A framework for engaging customers through social media content. European Journal of Marketing, 53(10), 2213–2243.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gvili, Y., & Levy, S. (2018). Consumer engagement with eWOM on social media: The role of social capital. Online Information Review, 42(4), 482–505.

Hossain, M. A., Dwivedi, Y. K., Chan, C., Standing, C., & Olanrewaju, A. S. (2018). Sharing Political Content in Online Social Media: A Planned and Unplanned Behaviour Approach. Information Systems Frontiers, 20(3), 485–501.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Hussain, S., Ahmed, W., Jafar, R. M. S., Rabnawaz, A., & Jianzhou, Y. (2017). eWOM source credibility, perceived risk and food product customer’s information adoption. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 96–102.

Ismagilova, E., Rana, N. P., Slade, E. L., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2021). A meta-analysis of the factors affecting eWOM providing behaviour. European Journal of Marketing, 55(4), 1067–1102.

Jahn, B., & Kunz, W. (2012). How to transform consumers into fans of your brand. Journal of Service Management, 23(3), 344–361.

Kim, S., Kandampully, J., & Bilgihan, A. (2018). The influence of eWOM communications: An application of online social network framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 243–254.

Lee, C. S., & Ma, L. (2012). News sharing in social media: The effect of gratifications and prior experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 331–339.

McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415–444.

Moran, G., & Muzellec, L. (2017). eWOM credibility on social networking sites: A framework. Journal of Marketing Communications, 23(2), 149–161.

Muda, M., & Hamzah, M. (2021). Should I suggest this YouTube clip? The impact of UGC source credibility on eWOM and purchase intention. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 441–459.

Muntinga, D. G., Moorman, M., & Smit, E. G. (2011). Introducing COBRAs: Exploring motivations for brand-related social media use. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 13–46.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill.

O’Brien, H. L. (2010). The influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement: The case of online shopping experiences. Interacting with Computers, 22(5), 344–352.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 123–205). Academic Press.

Reichelt, J., Sievert, J., & Jacob, F. (2014). How credibility affects eWOM reading: The influences of expertise, trustworthiness, and similarity on utilitarian and social functions. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20, 65–81.

Rogers, E. M., & Bhowmik, D. K. (1970). Homophily-Heterophily: Relational Concepts for Communication Research. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 34(4), 523–538.

Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36.

Sabate, F., Berbegal-Mirabent, J., Cañabate, A., & Lebherz, P. R. (2014). Factors influencing popularity of branded content in Facebook fan pages. European Management Journal, 32(6), 1001–1011.

Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Customer perceived value: The development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203–220.

Vander Schee, B. A., Peltier, J., & Dahl, A. J. (2020). Antecedent consumer factors, consequential branding outcomes and measures of online consumer engagement: current research and future directions. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 14(2), 239–268.

Verma, D., & Dewani, P. P. (2020). eWOM credibility: a comprehensive framework and literature review. Online Information Review, 45(3), 481–500.

Wallace, E., Buil, I., & de Chernatony, L. (2017). Consumers’ self-congruence with a “Liked” brand: Cognitive network influence and brand outcomes. European Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 367–390.

Weiger, W. H., Wetzel, H. A., & Hammerschmidt, M. (2019). Who’s pulling the strings?: The motivational paths from marketer actions to user engagement in social media. European Journal of Marketing, 53(9), 1808–1832.

Wheaton, B., Muthén, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. F. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. Sociological Methodology, 8, 84–136.

Wu, P. C. S., & Wang, Y. C. (2011). The influences of electronic word-of-mouth message appeal and message source credibility on brand attitude. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23(4), 448–472.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Tomás Baviera, Sergio Rodríguez Rodríguez

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media

ISSN: 2182-9306

DOI: 10.54663/2182-9306

Qualis Periódicos - CAPES: B2



Web of Science - Emerging Sources Citation Index - Clarivate Analytics

Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2021