Exploring the Sense of Belonging, Participation and Trust in Online Communities: A comparison between Spain and United States.

Rafael Anaya-Sánchez, Sebastián Molinillo, Arnold Japutra, Agatha Millán

Abstract


Online Community has become an important source of information for consumers. With its success, many companies have interest in introducing forms of online communities in their marketing strategy in order to improve their brand awareness. The influence and the use of these online communities can vary depending on different aspects (e.g. type of person, trust, type of community, etc.), standing out the culture and the nationality of the users. Since there are many variables affecting this issue, the main objective of this study is comparing the way different important variables in the use of online communities (trust, sense of belonging, participation, and influence in the purchase) react depending on the country the user is from, focusing on Spain and United States. Data was collected from 413 users of online communities from both countries who are members of OCs, using a structured questionnaire. The findings suggest that consumers from both countries are more similar than expected, showing high levels in all of the variables studied, but there are differences considering trust and sense of belonging.

Keywords


Online Communities, Trust, Online Comments, Participation, Sense of Belonging

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abfalter, D., Zaglia, M. E., & Mueller, J. (2012). Sense of virtual community: A follow up on its measurement. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28(2), 400-404.

Ardichvili, A., Maurer, M., Li, W., Wentling, T., & Stuedemann, R. (2006). Cultural influences on knowledge sharing through online communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(1), 94-107.

Ba, S. (2001). Establishing online trust through a community responsibility system. Decision Support Systems, 31, 323-336.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Dholakia, U. M. (2002). International social action in virtual communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16(2), 2-21.

Cambra-Fierro J., Melero-Polo, I., & Vázquez-Carrasco, R. (2013). Quejas de clientes: ¿amenazas u oportunidades? In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Tendencias y Oportunidades para que Fabricante y Distribuidor Rentabilicen sus Decisiones de Marketing (pp. 33-43), Oviedo (Spain): Cátedra fundación Ramón Areces de Distribución Comercial.

Casaló, L. V., Flavián, C., & Guinalíu, M. (2010a). Determinants of the intention to participate in firm-hosted online travel communities and effects on consumer behavioural intentions. Tourism Management, 31(6), 898-911.

Casaló, L. V., Flavián, C., & Guinalíu, M. (2010b). Relationship quality, community promotion and brand loyalty in virtual communities: Evidence from free software communities. International Journal of Information Management, 30(4), 357-367.

Constantinides, E., & Fountain, S. J. (2008). Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 9(3), 231-244.

Crespo, C. F., & Pereira, A. (2014). O Impacto das Redes Sociais no Relacionamento entre Empresas e Consumidores. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media. 2(3), 57-73.

Dargel, S. (2011, may). Las Redes Sociales y el Consumo. Claves para la Planificiación de una Estrategia Marketing Digital. Marketing News. Retrieved from http://www.marketingnews.es/varios/opinion/1056992028705/redes-sociales-consumo-claves-planificacion.1.html

De Valck, K., Van Bruggen, G. H., & Wierenga; B. (2009). Virtual communities: A marketing perspective, Decision Support Systems, 47, 185-203.

Domínguez-Casas, A. M., Gutiérrez-Arranz, A. M., & San José-Cabezudo, R. (2013). Programas de fidelización online y sensación de comunidad: antecedentes y consecuencias. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Tendencias y Oportunidades para que Fabricante y Distribuidor Rentabilicen sus Decisiones de Marketing (pp. 239-250).

Ewing, M. T., Wagstaff, P. E., & Powell, I. H. (2013). Brand rivalry and community conflict. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 4-12.

Flavián, C., & Guinalíu, M. (2004). La comunidad virtual: Factor clave del éxito de algunos negocios en Internet. Boletín Económico de ICE, 2794 (Febrero), 21-32.

Gómez-Borja, M. A., Lorenzo-Romero, C., & Alarcón-Del Amo, M. C. (2013). La distribución se vuelve social: beneficios y aplicaciones de los medios sociales en el comercio minorista. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Tendencias y Oportunidades para que Fabricante y Distribuidor Rentabilicen sus Decisiones de Marketing (pp. 295-312).

Globalwebindex (2016). GWI SOCIAL. Q1 2016. Retrieved from http://insight.globalwebindex.net/social

Huang, L. T., & Farn C. K. (2009). Effects of virtual communities on purchasing decision-making: the moderating role of information activities. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) PACIS 2009 proceedings.

Hudson, S., Huang, L., Roth, M. S., & Madden, T. J. (2016). The influence of social media interactions on consumer–brand relationships: A three-country study of brand perceptions and marketing behaviors. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33(1), 27-41.

Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Lang, K. R. (2011). Boundary management in online communities: Case studies of the Nine Inch Nails and ccMixter Music Remix Sites. Long Range Planning, 44(5-6), 440-457.

Jung, N. Y., Kim, S., & Kim, S. (2014). Influence of consumer attitude toward online brand community on revisit intention and brand trust. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 581-589.

King, R. A., Racherla, P. & Bush, V. D. (2014). What we know and don’t know about online word-of-mouth: a review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28, 167-183.

Laroche, M., Habibi, M. R., Richard, M-O., & Sankaranarayanan, R. (2012). The effects of social media based brand communities on brand community markers, value creation practices, brand trust and brand loyalty. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28(5), 1755-1767.

Lin, H-F. (2007). The role of online and offline features in sustaining virtual communities: and empirical study. Internet Research, 17(2), 119-138.

Martínez-López, F. J. Anaya-Sánchez, R., Aguilar-Illescas, R., & Molinillo, S. (2016). Online Brand Communities, Using the Social Web for Branding and Marketing, Cham (Switzerland):Springer.

Marzocchi, G., Morandin, G., & Bergami, M. (2013). Brand communities: loyal to the community or to the brand? European Journal of Marketing, 47(1), 93-114.

Morais, J. (2014). A co-criação, o crowdsourcing e a sustentabilidade aplicada à gestão e comunicação de marcas de moda. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media. 2(2), 105-118.

Matzler., K., Strobl, A., Stokburger-Sauer, N., Bobvnicky, A., & Bauer, F. (2016). Brand personality and culture: The role of cultural differences on the impact of brand personality perceptions on tourists' visit intentions. Tourism Management, 52, 507-520.

Muñiz, A., & O’Guinn, T. C. (2001). Brand Community. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 412-432.

Muñiz, A. M., & Schau, H. J. (2005): Religiosity in the abandoned Apple Newton brand community. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 737-47.

Obal, M., & Kunz, W. (2016). Cross-cultural differences in uses of online experts. Journal of Business Research, 69(3), 1148-1156.

ONTSI (2011). Las Redes Sociales en Internet. Retrieved from http://www.ontsi.red.es/ontsi/sites/default/files/redes_sociales-documento_0.pdf

ONTSI (2014). La Sociedad en Red: Informe Anual 2013. Retrieved from http://www.ontsi.red.es/ontsi/sites/default/files/informe_anual_la_sociedad_en_red_2013_ed._2014.pdf

O’Reilly, T. (2005). What is Web 2.0 design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Retrieved from http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html

Palazón, M., Sicilia, M, & Ruiz de Maya, S. (2014). El reconocimiento social como recompensa a la participación del consumidor en redes sociales. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Vlaves del éxito para fabricantes y detallistas (pp. 399-412).

Parra-Azor, J.F., & López-López, I. (2014). El boca oreja electrónico incongruente: efecto de interacción de la valencia y señalización del comercio más votado sobre credibilidad y persuasión de los consumidores. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Vlaves del éxito para fabricantes y detallistas (pp. 413-426).

Porter, C. E., & Donthu, N. (2008). Cultivating Trust and Harvesting Value in Virtual Communities. Management Science, 54(1), 113-128.

Posey, C., Lowry, P. B., Roberts, T. L., & Ellis, T. S. (2010). Proposing the online community self-disclosure model: the case of working professionals in France and the U.K. who use online communities. European Journal of Information Systems, 19, 181-195.

Purcell, K., & Rainie, L. (2014). Americans Feel Better Informed Thanks to the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/12/08/better-informed/

Rejón-Guardia, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Leiva, F. (2013): E-WOM en redes sociales: antecedentes y consecuencias. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Estrategias de Distribución y Comportamiento de Compra Multicanal: Tendencias y Oportunidades para que Fabricante y Distribuidor Rentabilicen sus Decisiones de Marketing (pp. 333-352).

Ridings, C. M., Gefen, D., & Arinze, B (2002). Some antecedents and effects of trust in virtual communities. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, 271-295.

Ruiz De Maya, S., Sicilia, M., & López-López, I. (2010). El boca oreja electrónico en el sitio web del minorista y su influencia en el consumidor. In Vázquez-Casielles, R., Trespalacios-Gutiérrez, J. A., Estrada-Alonso, E., & González-Mieres, C. (Ed.). Distribución comercial y comportamiento del consumidor (pp. 263-275).

Statista (2014). Age distribution of active social media users worldwide as of 3rd quarter 2014, by platform. Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/274829/age-distribution-of-active-social-media-users-worldwide-by-platform/

Statista (2015). Digital buyer penetration in North America from 2013 to 2018. Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/261635/digital-buyer-penetration-in-the-united-states/

Sicilia, M., & Palazón, M. (2010). El papel de las redes sociales online en la difusión de innovaciones. Libro de Actas del XXII Congreso Nacional de Marketing, AEMARK 2010.

Sung, Y., Kim, Y., Kwon, O., & Moon, J. (2010). An explorative study of Korean consumer participation in virtual brand communities in social network sites. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(5), 430-445.

Wu, J. J., Chen, Y. H., & Chung, Y. S. (2010). Trust factors influencing virtual community members: A study of transaction communities. Journal of Business Research, 63, 1025-1032.

Zaglia, M. E. (2013). Brand communities embedded in social networks. Journal of Business Research, 66, 216-223


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media

ISSN: 2182-9306

 

International Networks of Indexing: GOOGLE SCHOLAR - LATINDEX - REDIB - RCAAP - OAJI.