Dimensões da internacionalização das empresas: proposta de uma nova dimensão através de estudo de caso

Helder Brito Carrasqueira, Rita Rodrigues Baleiro, Margarida Cotrim Carrasqueira

Abstract


O artigo procura demonstrar que é corrente caracterizar o processo de internacionalização das empresas, nomeadamente na fase inicial (curto-prazo), através da formulação “clássica” das dimensões de internacionalização. Porém, é na extensão do modelo às fases posteriores (nomeadamente no longo-prazo) que é verdadeiramente possível verificar se a empresa consegue consolidar-se no mercado exterior e ter sucesso.

No seguimento, propomos uma nova dimensão de análise que designamos de “Após” no sentido de melhorar o poder de análise do modelo; centramo-nos no percurso de um grupo hoteleiro e nos fatores críticos que podem ser apontados como estando na base da sua afirmação no mercado de forma perene, como exemplo demostrativo.

Usamos a metodologia de estudo de caso e análise de conteúdo, com triangulação das fontes de informação;

Pensamos que esta linha de investigação é relevante para a informação das empresas que pretendem desenvolver processos de internacionalização.


Keywords


Dimensões; internacionalização; hotelaria.

Full Text:

PDF

References


ACEJE (2019), “G.P. ou a capacidade de evitar a vaidade do investimento”, entrevista concedida a Mário Pombo, ACEGE, 13 março 2019, https://www.acege.pt/grupo-pestana-ou-a-capacidade-de-evitar-a-vaidade-do-investimento/, acedido a 23-11-2020.

Anderson, O. (2000), “The internationalisation of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective”, International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 63-92.

Anderson, O. and Buvic, A. (2002), “Firm´s internationalisation and alternative approaches to the international customer/market selection”, International Business Review, Vol. 11 pp, 347-363.

Andreu, R., Claver, E. and Quer, D. (2017), “Foreign market entry mode choice of hotel companies: determining factors”, International Journal of Hospitality and Manage, Vol. 62, pp. 111-119.

Andreu, R., Claver, H., Quer, D. and Laura, R. (2018), “Family ownership in Spanish hotel chains: an analysis of their expansion through internationalisation”, UCJC Business and Society Review, Vol. 59 No. 3, pp. 40-75, doi:10.3232/UBR.2018.V15.N3.02.

Andreu, R., Claver-Cortés, E., Quer, D. and Rienda, L. (2020), “Family involvement and Spanish hotel chains’ entry modes abroad”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 23 No. 11, pp. 1375–1393. https://doi.org/10.10 80/13683500.2019.1620186.

Barber, J., Garcia, C. and Darder, F. (2011), “Entry mode choice in the internationalisation of the hotel industry: a holistic approach”, The Services Industries Journal, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp.107-122.

Barney, J. (1991), “Firms Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 99-120.

Bianchi, C. (2006), “Lessons Learned from Unsuccessful Internationalisation Attempts: Examples of Multinational Retailers in Chile”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59 No. 1, pp. 140-147 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.01.002

Biografias da Madeira (2003), “D.P., o senhor dos hotéis”, Maio de 2003, http://biografiasmadeira.blogspot.pt/2011/08/dionisio-pestana.html, acedido a 14-02-2016.

Björkman, L. and Forsgren, M. (2000), “Nordic international research: a review of its development”, International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 6-25.

Braunerhjelm, P. and Halldin, T. (2019), “Born globals – presence, performance and prospects”, International Business Review, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.07.004.

Breda, Z. (2010), “Network relationships and the internationalisation of the tourism economy: The case of portuguese overseas investment in the hotel sector”, PhD Thesis, Universidade de Aveiro, repositório da Universidade de Aveiro.

Brida, J., Ramón-Rodrigues, A., Devesa, M. and Driha, O. (2016), “The Inverted-U Relationship Between the Degree of Internationalisation and the Performance: The Case of Spanish Hotel Chains”, Tourism Management Perspectives, Vol. 17, pp. 72-81.

Brokes, M. and Roper, A. (2010), “The impact of entry modes on the organisational design of international hotel chains”, The Services Industries Journal, Vol. 30 No. 9, pp. 1499-1512.

Bryman, A. (2012), Social Research Methods (4th edition), Oxford University Press, USA.

Buckley, P. and Casson, M. (1981), ‘The optimal timing of a foreign direct investment’, The Economic Journal, Vol. 91 No.36, pp. 75–87.

Buckley, P. and Casson, M. (1976), “The Future of the Multinational Enterprises”, Holmes and Meier, New York.

Buckley, P. and Casson, M. (1985), The Economic Theory of the Multinational Enterprise, (authors eds). New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Carneiro, J. and Dib, L. (2007), “Avaliação comparativa do escopo descritivo e explanatório dos principais modelos de internacionalização de empresas”, Internext – Revista de Negócios Internacionais da ESPM, SP, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 1-25.

Carrasqueira, H., Garcia, P. and Carrasqueira, M. (2018), A internacionalização da hotelaria portuguesa para os mercados emergentes”, Investigaciones Turísticas, Vol. 15, pp. 34-48, http:// dx.doi.org/10.14198/INTURI2018.15.02.

Carvalho, L. (2014), “Internationalisation of service-oriented companies: Case study research into hospitality group”, Tourism Management Studies, Vol. 10 (special issue), pp. 169-173.

Castillo, G. and Quintero, J. (2013), “Retos estratégicos de la indústria hotelera española del siglo XXI: horizonte 2020 en países emergentes”, Tourism & Management Studies, Vol. 9 No 2, pp. 13-20.

Chetty, S. (1999), “Dimensions of internationalisation of manufacturing firms in the apparel industry”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33 No 1-2, pp. 121-142.

Coase, R. (1937), “The nature of the firm”, Economica, New Series, Vol. 4 No 16, pp.386-405.

Coase, H. (1992) The institutional structure of production, The Americ Economic Review, Vol. 82, nº4.

Cooper, D. and Schindler, P. (2003), “Métodos de pesquisa em administração”, Bookman, Porto Alegre.

Czinkota, M. (1982), “Export development strategies: US promotion policies”, Praeger Publishers, NY.

Diário do Turismo (2015), “Podemos diversificar nosso modelo de negócios no Brasil”, entrevista de Paulo Atzingen, 27 de dezembro, https://diariodoturismo.com.br/jose-roquette-pestana-podemos-diversificar-nosso-modelo-de-negocios-no-brasil/, acedido a 14-12-2020.

Dunning, J. (1977), trade, location of economic activity and the multinational enterprise: a search for an eclectic approach, in Ohlin, B. Hesselborn P., Wijkman P. (eds), The International Allocation of Economic Activity, Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-03196-2_38.

Dunning, J. (1980), “Toward an eclectic theory of international production: some empirical test”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 9-31.

Dunning, J. (2006), “Space location and distance in international business activities”, Annual Meeting of the European Academy of International Business, (Anais), Fribourg, Switzerland, December, pp. 7-9.

Exame (2018), “Dionísio Pestana - O Capitão do Império Pestana”, JHS, outubro 2018, https://gestaohoteleira.blogs.sapo.pt/dionisio-pestana-o-capitao-do-imperio-25835, acedido a 26-12-2020.

Expresso (2001), “Não faço hotéis por ganância”, Semanário Expresso, entrevista à jornalista Conceição Antunes, n/p, p. n/p.

Expresso (2015), “A viragem dos resultados nas Pousadas”, entrevista de Conceição Antunes, 31 janeiro de 2015, p. 19.

García-Moina, F., Martinez, A. and Kabbara, D. (2020), “Does religion influence location choice in the hotel industry?”, International Business Review, Vol. 29 No 2, 101663.

Gémar, G. (2014), “Influence of cultural distance on the internationalisation of Spanish hotel companies”, Tourism & Management Studies, Vol. 10 No 1, pp. 31-36.

Hotelaria Publituris (2014), “Temos uma visão completamente diferente da realidade destes países”, entrevista realizada por Carina Monteiro, n/d, p. 19-24.

Hotelaria Publituris (2017), “Este ano temos condições para entrar em mais uma capital europeia”, entrevista de Carina Monteiro, Publituris Hotelaria, 20 setembro, p. 19.

Hotels (2018), “Hotels 325 Special report”, www.hotelsmag.com, July/August 2019, Hotels, pp.20-39.

Ietto-Gillies, G. (2005) Transnational corporations and international productions, Edward Elgar, London.

Ivanova, M. and Ivanov, S. (2014), “Hotel chains´ entry mode in Bulgaria”, Anatolia, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 131-135.

Jaakkola, M. (2008), “Role of location in the international market selection in hotel business: Case: SOK Corporation”, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Role-of-location-in-the-international-market-in-%3A-Ruuskanen/485d6acff24165c0dd6a3ddc1354eee3338a9dd6?p2df, acedido a 26-12-2020.

Jésus, A., Cardosa, G. and Díaz, R. (2005), “Estrategia de internacionalización de Sol Mélia en América Latina”, Academia - Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, Vol. 35 No. 2, pp.107-134.

Johnson, C. and Vanetti, M. (2005), “Locational Strategies of International Hotel Chains”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 32 No 4, pp. 1077-1099.

Johanson, J., and Mattsson, G. (1988), “Internationalisation in industrial systems: A network approach”, in N. Hood and J.E. Vahlne (Eds), Strategies in global competition: 468–486, London: Croom Helm.

Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J. (1977), “The internationalisation process of the firm: a model of knowledge and increasing foreign market commitment”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 8 No1, pp. 23-32.

Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J. (2009), “The Uppsala internationalisation process revisited: from liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 40, 1141-1431.

Johansson, R. (2003), “Case study methodology”, International Conference MHR, Stockholm, 22-24 September 2003.

Jornal de Negócios (2020), “CR e GP abrem hotel no centro de Madrid este verão”, 21 Janeiro 2020, https://www.jornaldenegocios.pt/empresas/turismo---lazer/detalhe/cristiano-ronaldo-e-grupo-pestana-abrem-hotel-no-centro-de-madrid-este-verao, acedido a 18-12-2020;

Knight, G. and Cavusgil, S. (2004), “Innovation, organisational capabilities and the born-global firm”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 35 No. 2, pp. 124–141.

Lam, C., Ho, G. and Law, R. (2015), “How can Asian hotel companies remain internationally competitive?”, International Journal Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 No. 5, pp. 827-852.

Litteljohn, D. (1997), “Internationalisation in hotels: Current aspects and development”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 9 No. 5/6, pp. 187-192.

Luostarinen, R. and Welch, L. (1990), International Business Operations, Kyriiri Oy, Helsinki.

Manolova, T., Bush, C., Edelman, L. and Greene, P. (2002), “Internationalisation of small firms: Personal factors revisited”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 9– 31.

Marco-Lajara, Claver, C., Saez, P., Garcia, M. and Lilo, F. (2017), “Tourist districts and internationalisation of hotel firms”, Tourism Management, Vol. 61, August, pp. 451-464.

Mas-Ruiz, F. J., Conde, E., and Martinz, A. (2018),

“Strategic group influence on entry mode choices in foreign markets”, International Business Review, Vol. 27 No. 6, 1259–1269. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.05.007.

Merriam, S. (1998), Qualitative research and case study application on education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

O’Gorman, C. and McTiernan, L. (2000), “Factors influencing the internationalisation choices of small and medium-sized enterprises: the case of the Irish hotel industry”, Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 141-51.

Oviatt, B. and P. McDougall (1994), “Toward a Theory of International New Ventures”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 45-64.

Oviatt B. and McDougal P. (2005), “Toward a theory of international new ventures”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 29-41.

Paul, J. and Rosado, A. (2019), “Gradual Internationalisation vs Born-Global/International new venture models: A review and research agenda”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 36 No. 26, DOI: 10.1108/IMR-10-2018-0280.

PHG (2019) Apresentação institucional, https://www.pestana.com/pt/contents/institucional/grupo, acedido a 07-11-2019.

PHG (2020) Apresentação institucional, https://www.pestanagroup.com/pt/business-development/growth/, acedido a 27-12-2020.

Rennie, M. (1993), “Global Competitiveness Born Global”, The McKinsey Quarterly, No. 4, Autumn, pp. 45 - 52.

Rodtook, P and Altinay, L. (2013), “Reasons for Internationalisation of Domestic Hotel Chains in Thailand”, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, Vol. 22 No. 1, 92-115, DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2012.632711.

Romero-Martinez, M., Garcia-Muina, E., Chidlow, A. and Larimo, J. (2019), “Formal and informal institutional differences between home and host country and location choice: Evidence from the Spanish hotel industry”, Management International Review, Vol. 59 No. 1, pp. 41–65.

Salazar, S., Moraes, A. and Leite, P. (2012), “Processo de internacionalización de servicios - Un estúdio en una cadena de restaurantes del nordeste brasileño”, Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 1035-1049.

Sheresheva, Y, Oborin, S., and Polyanskava, E. (2018), “International hotel chains in Russia: The prospects and challenges of movement from megacities to smaller cities in Russian regions”, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 421-435.

Welch, L. and Luostarinen, R. (1988), “Internationalisation: evolution of a concept”, Journal of General Management, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 36-64.

Wendling, J. and Calixto, C. (2020), “Internationalization of Accor Hotels in Brasil, Chile and Argentina, Revista Eletrônica de Administração e Turismo, Vol.14 No. 1. DOI.ORG/10.15210/REAT.V14I1.16156.

Williamson, O. (1981), “The economics of organisation: The transaction cost approach”, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 548-577.

Weerawardena, J., Salunke, S, Knight, G., Sullivan, G., Mort, P. and Liesch, W. (2020), “The learning subsystem interplay in service innovation in born global service firm internationalisation”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 89, August, pp. 181-195.

Whitla, P. Walters, P. and Davies, H. (2007), “Global strategies in the international hotel industry”, Hospitality Management, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 777-791.

Wulff, J. (2015), “Empirical research in foreign market entry mode”, PhD thesis, Aarhus University, http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/85180694/PhD_thesis_Jesper_Nydam_Wulff.pdf, acedido a 11-03-2019.

Yang, Y. Luo, H. and Law, R. (2014), “Theoretical, empirical, and operational models in hotel location research”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 36, January, pp. 209-220.

Yeung, H. (2002), “The internationalisation of ethnic Chinese business firms from Southeast Asia: strategies, processes and competitive advantage”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 23 No. 1, 88-102.

Yin, R. (2005), Estudo de caso: planeamento e métodos (3ªed) Bookman, Porto Alegre.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Portuguese Journal of Finance, Management and Accounting

e-ISSN: 2183-3826

 

International Networks of Indexing: GOOGLE SCHOLAR, RCAAP, REBID, DRJI